The chances of experiencing shaking from an earthquake and/or having property damage is dependent on many different factors. One example of a major fault is the Denali fault, which cuts across the state in the Alaska Range (labelled on map on reverse). Following the Denali Fault earthquake, adjacent fault segments have been stressed, increasing the likelihood of additional earthquakes on those segments. The section of the Denali fault cutting across the park has not experienced a major earthquake within the last ~100 years.  determined focal mechanisms for earthquakes before and after the Denali fault earthquake, then estimated These trained individuals greatly enhanced our State Post-Disaster Damage Assessment team's capability and credibility. The earthquake began about 80 km (50 miles) east of the Denali Visitor Center, and ruptured eastward along the Denali Fault, and was followed by thousands of aftershocks. Similarly, the largest recorded earthquake in North American history also occurred on a subduction zone fault … All the atmospheric parameters [CWV, SLHF, relative humidity (RH) and total ozone column (TOC)] show significant changes prior and after the Denali fault earthquake. These lines are shear zones where smaller crustal blocks are shifting between major faults. BACKGROUNDER • ASSESSING AND MANAGING SEISMIC RISK. Earthquakes shake the ground daily, but most are minor local events. The Denali Fault has a lower seismic risk, with a maximum This TCLEE Monograph presents 107 state-of-the-art papers on the effects of natural and technological hazards on lifelines. The interaction of the Pacific and North American plates across southern Alaska creates a variety of sources for seismic activity. and minor earthquakes on the subduction zone in a cluster pattern. The largest surface offsets of 8.8 meters (29 feet) were observed farther to the east. Ongoing tectonic processes are constantly shifting and changing the land. The Nenana Mountain and Denali Fault earthquakes generated a vigorous aftershock sequence. The 2002 Denali, Alaska Earthquake. Analysts also scan waveforms to find earthquakes that were not detected by the automated system. Until then, the fault can be studied by measuring the steady deformation of the Earth that surrounds all active faults. The National Hazard Maps use all available data to estimate the chances of shaking (of different strengths and It was evident, during damage assessment evaluations after the Denali fault event, that the residents of the smaller at-risk communities had little understanding of the earthquake hazard, had not implemented measures to mitigate damage, and were unprepared to respond to the consequences of damage. Hazard estimates have important implications for society, providing a basis for building codes, insurance rate structures, risk assessments, and public policies to mitigate earthquake risk. Using the program FPFIT [Reasenberg and Oppenheimer, 1985], Ratchkovski et al. The earthquake lasted about 100 seconds. COUNTERMEASURES AGAINST LARGE-SCALE EARTHQUAKES The main cause of many casualties in the Hyogoken Nambu Earthquake in 1995 was The Good Friday Earthquake—a 1964 magnitude 9.2 event located in Prince William Sound—remains the largest earthquake ever recorded in the U.S. and the secondlargest earthquake ever recorded worldwide. AEIC has four seismic stations in Denali: (from west to east, see map) Castle Rocks (CAST), Kantishna Hills (KTH) on Wickersham Dome, Thoroughfare Mountain (TRF), and McKinley (MCK) near the park entrance. The criteria consisted of location, type, and amount of fault displacement at the Denali and other fault crossings. Such knowledge is needed to predict ground motions in future earthquakes so that earthquake-resistant structures can be designed. One example of a major fault is the Denali fault, which cuts across the state in the Alaska Range (labelled on map on reverse). The 7.9 Denali fault earthquake in 2002 revealed an unknown fault now named the Susitna Glacier fault. Areas of active faulting like central Alaska continuously undergo slow deformation between earthquakes, and experience sudden shifts when earthquakes happen. McKinley) that dominates the park landscape. Deep earthquakes occur under the ground in the southern and eastern portions of the park (see red-orange and orange dots on the map above). Denali fault earthquake to evaluate structural damage in that event. During this reporting period, the NEHRP celebrated its 25th anniversary. S58–S71, 2004. > $7 billion dollars damage Reasons for huge loss….. 94, no. In 2002, the M 7.9 earthquake ruptured a portion of the Denali fault east of the park to produce a horizontal offset of up to 8.8 m (29 feet). We know a fault exists only if it has produced an earthquake or it has left a recognizable mark on the earth’s surface. around the Denali fault is sparsely populated, it is the same type of fault as the San Andreas fault in California, which is surrounded by densely populated cities. Geoscientists are able to identify particular areas of risk and, if there is sufficient information, to make probabilistic forecasts about the likelihood of earthquakes happening in a specified area over a specified period. Mitigating this damage is thus of paramount importance in reducing the overall risk posed by earthquakes. The Denali Fault extends across the heart of the Alaska Range, passing just north of the town of Cantwell, through the Muldrow Glacier at the base of the north face of Denali, and continues to the west. Overall, motions were about 20 times faster over the first 1-2 years after the earthquake, compared to the pre-earthquake rates. This seismically active area in the heart of the park typically experiences a M 2 earthquake every few days. In 2002, the M 7.9 earthquake ruptured a portion of the Denali fault east of the park to produce a horizontal offset of up to 8.8 m (29 feet). Earthquakes cause lots of damage to property and even result in deaths. This presents a rare opportunity to catch a major earthquake in the act. The Pacific plate is moving northwest relative to Alaska, causing many earthquakes along the interface. The fault's rate of displacement varies from 1 mm to 35 mm per year. Geologic observations from the Denali fault could prove invaluable to mitigating earthquake risk and saving lives in Alaska and elsewhere. The longest earthquake ruptures on strike-slip faults, like the San Andreas Fault (1857, 1906), the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey (1939) and the Denali Fault in Alaska (2002), are about half to one third as long as the lengths along subducting plate margins, and those along normal faults are even shorter. Postseismic deformation is the general term used for the movements that follow and are triggered by earthquakes. The earthquake caused an offset of nearly 6 meters (20 feet) where it crossed … Geoscientists are able to identify particular areas of risk and, if there is sufficient information, to make probabilistic forecasts about the likelihood of earthquakes happening in a specified area over a specified period. It began with thrusting on the previously unrecognized Susitna Glacier fault, continued with right-slip … The North American crust ( see blue dots on map above ) Susitna Glacier thrust.... 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