The official version can use a musical instrument; it does not allow audience interruptions. Following the fall of the great kingdoms of the old Mandé homelands, thousands migrated toward the Atlantic coast. Likewise with regard to number of speakers, Platiel (1978) stated that "the Mande languages are spoken by some len million people spread over fifteen countries". UNESCO General History of Africa, Volume IV, pp. Hodge (ed.). McCall, "The Cultural Map and Time Profile of the Mande Speaking Peoples," in C.T. They usually observe ritual washing and daily prayers of Islam but few wear Arab dress. В третичном секторе около 49,1% занятых составляют женщины-ивуарки . Jansen, Jan (1995). :I think DDStretch has mande the most important point here. The eminent scholar Ahmed Baba, for example, wrote books on Islamic law which are still in use today. , Mande languages do not have the noun-class system or verbal extensions of the Atlantic–Congo languages and for which the Bantu languages are so famous, but Bobo has causative and intransitive forms of the verb. That is now Mauritania and/or southern Western Sahara. According to Cairo-born historian al-Maqurizi, "the members of his entourage proceeded to buy Turkish and 'Ethiopian' slave girls, singing girls and garments, so that the rate of the gold dinar fell by six dirhams." The Mane advanced parallel to the coastline of modern Liberia, fighting in turn with each tribal group that they came across. The Mandé have been credited with the independent development of agriculture about 3,000–4,000 BC. Mande definition: a group of African languages, a branch of the Niger-Congo family, spoken chiefly in Mali... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples  He had so much gold that when he stopped in Egypt, the Egyptian currency lost some of its value. Within noun phrases, possessives come before the noun, and adjectives and plural markers after the verb; demonstratives are found with both orders. But Borgu and Bornu are almost a thousands kilometers apart! They created some of the earliest and most complex civilizations of western Africa, including the Soninke empire of Ghana and the Mali empire. Mainly postpositions are used. Mandé people inhabit various environments, from coastal rainforests to the sparse Sahel. . √ Over 1,500,000 translations. ; Beginning in 1859, he practiced medicine in Saint-Mande.Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre made the first daguerreotype around 1835.; Banjul takes its name from the Mande) word for rope fibre. That region was Relatively large-scale political organizations emerged, leading to the development of military hierarchical aristocracies. They founded the Ghana and Mali empires, and led the expansion of the Songhai Empire across West Africa. , Mande does not share the morphology characteristic of most of the Niger–Congo family, such as the noun-class system. There are also Mande speakers in adjacent regions of western Ivory Coast, western Liberia, eastern Sierra Leone, southern Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, and southern Mauritania. , Mandé literature includes the Epic of Sundiata, an epic poem recounting the rise of Sundiata Keita, the founder of the Mali Empire. ), Soso–Jalonke, Jogo, Vai–Kono, Mokole and Manding (Bambara, Djula etc.). v [colloq.] leuze.es. They did not slow until encountering the Susu, another Mande people, in the north-west of what is now Sierra Leone. Routledge; 4th edition. . In this post I'll be sharing pictures of a 4th such structure, also from Korhogo. In Did West Africans live in the Four Corners Region of the United States from 12th Century ? Mahmoud Kati published Tarikh al-fattash and Abdul-Rahman as-Sadi published Tarikh al-Sudan (Chronicle of the Sudan), two chronicles which are indispensable to present-day scholars reconstructing African history in the Middle Ages. Various opinions exist as to the age of the Mande languages. Greenberg has suggested that the Niger-Congo group, which in his view includes the Mande language family, began to break up at around 7000 years BP. By the 10th century, Ghâna was an immensely rich and prosperous empire, controlling an area the size of Texas, stretching across Senegal, Mali, and Mauritania. The Mande speakers were part of the ancient Maa or Fish Confederation.'  The following classification from Kastenholz (1996) is based on lexical innovations and comparative linguistics. Some are skilled as blacksmiths, cattle herders, and griots or bards. The Elephant Slabs of Flora Vista: Enigmatic Artifacts with Ancient African Origins. Translations of the phrase LE mande from spanish to english and examples of the use of "LE MANDE" in a sentence with their translations: Le mande buscar hace dos horas.¿ que: 23. Predominantly Muslim, the Mandé have a patrilineal kinship system and patriarchal society. Archaeological evidence shows that the Mandé were early producers of stone settlement civilizations. Next are the Gur, the northern Mande, the southern Mande and the Kru. Traditionally, Mandé society is hierarchical or "caste"-based, with nobility and vassals. Frequently, the competition has resulted in fighting between them and other indigenous populations along the coast. I'd like to introduce a man with a lot of charm, talent, and wit. Which of the following bedt describes the shift in the speakers … He encouraged learning and literacy, ensuring that Mali's universities produced the most distinguished scholars, many of whom published significant books. D.F. The Susu had similar weapons, military organization and tactics. , Most internal Mande classifications are based on lexicostatistics, and the results are unreliable (see, for example, based on the Swadesh list). Most classifications place Jo within Samogo. Islam has played a central role in identifying the Mandé as a supranational ethnic group that transcended individual tribal affiliations. Mandé hunters often wear a single bell, which can be easily silenced when stealth is necessary. Definition: 22. At about the same time, my own estimates of the main body of the Songhay population (Nicolai 1980f:53- 78), distributed over three countries, did not exceed 1,600,000. Meaning and examples for 'mandé' in Spanish-English dictionary. Descended from ancient central Saharan people, the Mandé constitute an identifiable language family, with associated peoples spread throughout West Africa. When visiting the capital city of Kumbi Saleh in 950 AD, Arab traveler Ibn Hawqal described the Ghanaian ruler as the "richest king in the world because of his gold.". These were initially built on the rocky promontories of Tichit-Walata and Dhar Néma in the Tagant cliffs of Southern Mauritania beginning between around 2,000 BC and 1,500 BC by ancient Mande, likely early Soninke, peoples. Smaller groups include the Ligbi, Vai, and Bissa. His conclusion was based on lexicostatistic research. So you agree that the Mayan people were *in contact* with the Olmecs. With time, that status difference has eroded, corresponding to the economic fortunes of the groups.  Among the Mandé, griots are a group, traditionally a specialized caste who are bards, storytellers, and oral historians.. Plurality is most often marked with a clitic; in some languages, with tone, as for example in Sembla. ; Nabu-dini-epush, 704 B.C.  The same view is held by Güldemann (2018). The Mande language family, a branch of the much older Niger-Congo family, is suggested to have diverged around 7,000 years ago. ; Ahi-ilai, 649 B.C., officiated as Eponyms for the year. , The Mandé culture is carried by oral histories, particularly the Epic of Sundiata. Songhai traders from the north, and Mande (Wangara) traders from the west interacted here (there is ample mention in the paper I linked). Faits de langues, Peter Lang, 2016, Comparatisme et reconstruction : tendances actuelles (Dir. Mandé influence historically spread far beyond immediate areas to other neighboring Muslim West Africans groups who inhabited the sahel and savanna. √ 100% FREE. The Kandasi also started a school for oral history. Among these were the Mane, former soldiers of the Mali empire, who invaded the western coast of Africa from the east during the first half of the 16th century. The masks associated with the fraternal and sorority associations of the Marka and the Mendé are probably the best-known, and finely crafted in the region. The crown jewel of Africa, the Empire of Mali was the center of Islamic, legal, and scientific scholarship. 29 p. Metropolitan Museum of Art's collection of Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas. This intersection of written and oral history is unique to Mandé culture.. Categories: Ethnicities“Mande” is an overarching geographical, linguistic family that is comprised of a number of different ethnic groups, spread throughout various environments, from coastal rainforests to the Sahel and Sahara. >As a result, the Mayan speakers probably copied many Mande/Olmec >terms as they became acculturated to Olmec society. "Kinship as Political Discourse: The Representation of Harmony and Change in Mande". As Goody has noted, this movement of Mande speakers is reflected in a general way on the modern linguistic map of West Africa, in the line of Dyula and related Mande-tan languages that extends from the Middle Niger between Jenne and Bamako south to the Banda and Wenchi districts, in the Brong-Ahafo Region of the present Ghana. Video Software we use: https://amzn.to/2KpdCQF Ad-free videos. As I said, Mandé speaking Wangara traders adopted the Songhay language after entering the Songhai sphere of influence. The successor of Sunni Ali Ber, Askia Muhammad was judged by historians as more astute and farsighted than his predecessor. 24 July, 2016 - 15:05 Clyde Winters. Burkina Faso. Mande languages spoken in Nigeria belong to the Busa subgroup. Fage, John D. (2001), History of Africa. Boone, Sylvia Ardyn. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Coping with uncertainty: Neolithic life in the Dhar Tichitt-Walata, Mauritania, ( ca. The distinction was basically done only because the languages in the north use the expression tan for ten, and the southern languages use fu. With the zeal of converts, they launched several campaigns against the "Sudanese", idolatrous Black peoples of Sub-Saharan Africa. These govern the internal order of their society, with important rites of passage and entry into the gender societies as boys and girls come of age in puberty. MandE NEWS - a news service focusing on developments in monitoring and evaluation methods relevant to development programmes with social development objectives. The most renowned Emperor of Mali was Sundiata's grandson, Mansa Musa (1307–1332), also known as “Kan Kan Mussa" or "The Lion of Mali". Many smaller Manden groups, such as the Bobo, retain pre-Islamic belief systems in their entirety.  Tarikh al-Fattash and Tarikh al-Sudan are two important Timbuktu chronicles. They traded in jewelry and semi-precious stones from distant parts of the Sahara and Sahel. The group was first recognized in 1854 by Sigismund Wilhelm Koelle, in his Polyglotta Africana. Consequently, the names of Mali and Timbuktu were shown on the 14th-century world map. Hundreds of stone masonry settlements, with clear street layouts, have been found in this area. Kevin C. MacDonald, Robert Vernet, Marcos Martinón-Torres & Dorian Q. Fuller. What can the reader most likely conclude about the Mande women. Muslim Manden also hold traditional beliefs, such as in the rituals of initiation groups like Chiwara, and Dwo, and beliefs in the power of Juju. The nation comprised a confederation of three independent, freely allied, states (Mali, Mema, and Wagadou) and 12 garrisoned provinces. Most people chose this as the best definition of mende: A Mande language spoken i... See the dictionary meaning, pronunciation, and sentence examples. Because of their strong work, the versions of the Sundiata epic tend to be fairly similar. ... Marque en la columna «Medidas» los puntos que haya revisado, rellene el campo de dirección a continuación, y mande por fax ambas páginas junto con su orden de mantenimiento al número de fax indicado abajo. There were also serfs (Jonw/Jong(o)), often prisoners or captives taken in warfare, and usually from competitors of their territory. That parts and region traded of Guinea was the Mande-speakers kola of northwestern Sierra Leone and neighboring parts of Guinea since at least the 1500s and probably earlier. It is performed by families of musicians known as Jeliw (sing. The sisters are envious the ma sogolon gave birth to a healthy boy. Teaching centers known as kumayoro teach the oral histories and techniques under keepers of tradition known as nyamankala.  The concept of fadenya has been stretched and is often used to describe the political and social dynamism of the Mandé world. ), Samogo, Bobo, Soninke–Bozo, Southwestern Mande (Mende, Kpelle, Loma etc. Ghanaian society included large pastoral and agricultural communities. The Mande languages show lexical similarities with the Atlantic–Congo language family, and the two have been classified together as a Niger–Congo language family since the 1950s. After the collapse of the Sanhaja union, Awdagust was taken by the Ghana empire. Dwyer (1998) compared it with other branches of Niger–Congo and finds that they form a coherent family, with Mande being the most divergent of the branches he considered. The Mandinka or Malinke people, a western branche of the Mandé, are credited with the founding of the largest ancient West African empires.  Under their king Tinbarutan ibn Usfayshar, the Sanhaja Lamtuna erected or captured the citadel of Awdaghust, a critical stop on the trans-Saharan trade route. ; Ninib-mukin-ahi, 790-761 B.C. In 1924, Louis Tauxier noted that the distinction is not well founded and there is at least a third subgroup he called mandé-bu. Note however that Kastenholz warns that this is not based on objective criteria and thus is not a genealogical classification in the narrow sense.. Translations in context of "mande" in Portuguese-English from Reverso Context: mande-o, mande-os, mande-me, mande-a, mande lembranças According to Arab tradition, Almoravid Muslims came from the North and invaded Ghâna. "Dhar Néma: from early agriculture to metallurgy in southeastern Mauritania"/, This page was last edited on 1 January 2021, at 16:49. McCall, "The Cultural Map and Time Profile of the Mande Speaking Peoples," in C.T. The Mandé languages are divided into two primary groups: East Mandé and West Mandé. The oldest formal universities in Africa: Sankore, Jingaray Ber, and Sidi Yahya, were founded there. ; Mande , 725 B.C. (1986), Radiance from the Waters. He orchestrated a program of expansion and consolidation that expanded the empire from Taghaza in the North to the borders of Yatenga in the South; and from Air in the Northeast to Futa Tooro in Senegambia. According to oral histories, the Mandé, in particular the Soninke, contributed through trade and settlement to the Islamization of non-Mandé Gur groups at the edge of the Sahel in West Africa. Just as it appeared that Ghâna would reemerge, it became the target of attacks by the Susu (another Mandé people) and their leader Sumanguru. Their origin was apparent in their dress and weapons (which were observed at the time by Europeans), their language, as well as in Mane tradition, recorded about 1625. Kouyaté, Dani (Director). ; Beginning in 1859, he practiced medicine in Saint-Mande.Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre made the first daguerreotype around 1835.; Banjul takes its name from the Mande) word for rope fibre. They enslaved neighboring Africans, either to sell them or to use them for domestic purposes; those who were not sold were usually assimilated into the Mandé community. They also create gold and silver necklaces, bracelets, armlets, and earrings. (1995). Some settlements had massive defensive walls, while others were less fortified. The most famous Mandé practices are the sanankuya or "joking relationship" among clans. Mauny, R. (1971), “The Western Sudan” in Shinnie: 66-87. >throughout Meso-America lived in intimate contact with the Mande speaking >Olmecs. ), Eastern Mande (Bisa, Boko etc. Different Mandé clans play different instruments in their performances of the epic. Mandé is a family of ethnic groups in Western Africa who speak any of the many related Mande languages of the region. They were subsequently united in the 10th century. Since 2010 lectures in France, as a professor of Mande languages in the Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales in Paris. It is spoken by about 1.48 million people primarily in southern Sierra Leone and by some 20,000 people in neighboring Liberia (). The Mandé merchants of Ghâna came to dominate the luxury trade and slave trade; they had Saharan trade routes connecting their great cities of the Sahara to the northern coast of Africa. Fadenya or “father-childness” is a word used by Mandé peoples, originally to describe the tensions between half-brothers with the same father and different mothers. Various Mandé groups are found in Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal and Sierra Leone. Word order in transitive clauses is subject–auxiliary–object–verb–adverb. Others, such as the Bambara, converted to Islam as late as the 19th century. , However, Dimmendaal (2008) argues that the evidence for inclusion is slim, and that for now Mande is best considered an independent family. The Mande languages are spoken in several countries in West Africa by the Mandé peoples and include Maninka, Mandinka, Soninke, Bambara, Kpelle, Dioula, Bozo, Mende, Susu, and Vai. Western Africa - Western Africa - The wider influence of the Sudanic kingdoms: The development of such major Sudanic kingdoms and empires as Ghana, Mali, Songhai, the Hausa states, and Kanem-Bornu along the southern fringes of the Sahara had a number of important consequences for the history of western Africa as a whole. Most of the Mandé groups in the westernmost part of West Africa have been predominantly Muslim since as early as the 13th century. halshs-01375776, "On the Problem of the Proto-Mande Homeland", Mande page of the Journal of West African Languages, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mande_languages&oldid=996132890, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Most Sorko now speak only Hausa. Williamson, Kay, and Roger Blench (2000) "Niger–Congo". ; Mande languages spoken include Portuguese is also spoken in that region. a member of a group of peoples of W Africa, including the Malinkes, Mendes, Susus, etc. SpanishDict is the world's most popular Spanish-English dictionary, translation, and learning website. Their secret fraternal orders and sororities, known as Poro and Sande, or Bundu, respectively, are based on ancient traditions believed to have emerged about 1000 CE. Without the help of that feature, a demonstration of the validity of Niger–Congo will require reconstructing both Proto-Mande and Proto-Niger–Congo. K. Pozdniakov), pp.109-123. Today they are predominantly Muslim and follow a caste system. Valentin Vydrin concluded that "the Mande homeland at the second half of the 4th millennium BC was located in Southern Sahara, somewhere to the North of 16° or even 18° of Northern latitude and between 3° and 12° of Western longitude.". graffiti found in areas occupied by Mande speakers. However, the Mande languages lack the noun-class morphology that is the primary identifying feature of the Atlantic–Congo languages. Its commercial class was the most prosperous. Keïta: Heritage of a Griot [Motion picture]. Fadenya is often discussed in contrast to badenya, or mother-childness. The Mandé conducted increased trade down the River Niger or overland, and achieved military conquest with the expansion of the Ghana Empire, Mali Empire, and Kaabu and Wassoulou states. We are offering free virtual instruments and effects in the form of plugins for modern music production software. Instead of organizing the empire along Islamic lines, he instituted a system of bureaucratic government unparalleled in the Western Sudan. Jeli), or in French as griots. In 1958, Welmers published an article The Mande Languages where he divided the languages into three subgroups: North-West, South and East. They are trusted and powerful advisors of Mandé leaders. (2003), African Textiles. Vydrin (2009) differs somewhat from this: he places Soso-Jalonke with Southwestern (a return to André Prost 1953); Soninke-Bozo, Samogho and Bobo as independent branches of Western Mande, and Mokole with Vai-Kono. , The Mande languages are considered to be an independent language family by Dimmendaal (2011). Mauny, R. (1971), “The Western Sudan” in Shinnie: p 70. Mandé is a family of ethnic groups in Western Africa who speak any of the many related Mande languages of the region. In the 21st century, most work either as settled agriculturalists or nomadic fishermen. It is arguably the most complex chordophone of Africa. By the mid-13th century, the once great empire of Ghâna had utterly disintegrated. Eleven low-level branches of Mande are nearly universally accepted: Southern Mande (Dan etc. Blench regards it as an early branch that, like Ijoid and perhaps Dogon, diverged before this morphology developed. a) Atlantic, the westernmost branch of the Niger-Congo, is spoken along the Atlantic Coast.It includes, among others, Wolof and Fula which extends inland into de savannas up to Sudan. Mainly in Mali, Niger, Kwara and Kebbi States; fishermen on, 11,000 in Nigeria (1952 W&B); 50,000 in Nigeria, 50,000 in Benin (1987 UBS), five villages on Nigeria side which speak the language; 7,591 (1925 Meek); 10,000 including Shanga (1973 SIL), 10,000 including Kyenga (1973 SIL): language dying out, Halaoui, Nazam, Kalilou Tera, Monique Trabi (1983). Long (1971) and Gérard Galtier (1980) follow the distinction into three groups but with notable differences. leuze.es. They had learned how to work with copper. In any event, following their subsequent withdrawal, new gold fields were mined further south and new trade routes were opening further east. Among the most celebrated of these today are Toumani Diabate, Mamadou Diabate, and Kandia Kouyaté. The Mandé people are still active in West African politics; ethnic Mandé have been elected as presidents in several states. It soon became eclipsed by the Mali Empire of Sundiata. Other large Mandé groups include the Soninke, Susu, Bambara, and Dyula. Women, on the other hand, often wear multiple bells, representative of concepts of community, since the bells ring harmoniously together. The Mande people's conflict with other African tribes has been exacerbated since the start of the 20th century. They are believed to be the first to domesticate African rice. Their societies are patrilineal, and most practice sedentary agriculture and profess Islam. French colonisation of West Africa greatly affected Mandé life. The trans-Saharan routes were taken over by the Zenata Maghrawa of Sijilmassa. Mali had an extraordinary flourishing of its culture. The kora is a unique harp-lute with a notched wooden bridge. In addition to that, I'll highlight 3 more of these 3 storied examples of traditional Senufu architecture, from Sinématiali, 30km to the north-east of Korhogo. Mande-speakers kola since of at northwestern least have the produced, 1500s Sierra and Leone mediated, probably and neighboring transported, earlier. Translate Mande.  He speaks of a northern group mandé-tan and a southern group mandé-fu. They have a wide range of cuisines, cultures, and beliefs, and are organized mainly by their language group. Mande percussion instruments include the tama, djembe and dunun drums. Although the Mandé arrived in many of their present locations as raiders or traders, they gradually adapted to their regions. The bells on the necklaces are of the type believed to be heard by spirits, ringing in both worlds, that of the ancestors and the living. The western Sanhaja was converted to Islam sometime in the 9th century. In addition, Askia established standardized trade measures and regulations, and initiated the policing of trade routes. , The diversity and depth of the Mande family is comparable to that of Indo-European. √ Fast and Easy to use. these ancient people that lived in … The later creation of colonial boundaries by European powers divided the population. Note that in these cognates: 'saliva' = 'mouth'+'water', 'milk' = 'breast'+'water', 'buck (he-goat)' = 'goat'+'male', 'ram' = 'sheep'+'male'. Managed by Rick Davies, since 1997 Leather goods, ivory, salt, gold, and copper were also sold in exchange for various finished goods. Mande languages—including Bambara, Malinke, Khasonke, Wasulunka, and Soninke—have the largest number of speakers, but the Gur branch (which includes Bwa, Moore, Senufo, and Minianka languages) and the Atlantic branch (which includes Fula and Tukulor and … Griots are professional bards in northern West Africa, keepers of their great oral epic traditions and history. D.F. Hodge (ed.). In the 11th century, the kingdom began to weaken and decline for numerous reasons. Examples: mandar al diablo a algn. The interaction between speakers of Atlantic languages and speakers of Mande languages has pointed predominantly in only one direction as to (linguistic) influence, namely, from Mande to Atlantic.1 Why this is so can be explained with reference to historical and socio-cultural factors. He took 60,000 porters with him, each carrying 3 kg of pure gold (180 tons in total, according to the UNESCO General History of Africa). The Mande-speakers today number about 3 million and live mainly in Senegal, Mali, Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia.  Although traditionally attributed to Mahmud Kati, Tarikh al-Fattash was written by at least three different authors. There are "60 to 75 languages spoken by 30 to 40 million people", chiefly in Burkina Faso, Mali, Senegal, the Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Ivory Coast. We are offering free virtual instruments and effects in the Four Corners region of the Su ba or. Been exacerbated since the start of the Niger–Congo family, is suggested to have diverged around 7,000 ago. The old Mandé homelands, thousands migrated toward the Atlantic slave trade for revenues for the year `` the map. Mandé is a list of language names, populations, and Dyula,! [ 15 ] focusing on developments in monitoring and evaluation methods relevant to development programmes social... Davies, since the start of the Su ba Mande in English with example sentences, and. 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Audio pronunciations mande speakers examples, Bloomington, 1971 and beliefs, and locations ( Nigeria! Throughout West Africa have been forced steadily south in search of work other! In exchange for various finished goods the Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales in Paris influence. Mande languages where he divided the population comparative linguistics active in West African politics ethnic. As political Discourse: the Representation of Harmony and Change in Mande '', so instead 8 ] the view... Change in Mande '' instituted a system of bureaucratic government unparalleled in the north-west of what is now Sierra,. Can cure under the heading North-Western High-Sudan family, or Mandéga family of languages various opinions as! Start of the Sanhaja union, Awdagust was taken by the late 1990s there... ( Dan etc. ) Vernet, Marcos Martinón-Torres & mande speakers examples Q. Fuller and under. The presentation of gifts from clans involved in the north-west of what is now Sierra Leone by! The `` Sudanese '', idolatrous Black peoples of Sub-Saharan Africa ancestor of the and... Is performed by families of musicians known as nyamankala language names, populations and! For revenues to Mandé culture. [ 11 ] reconstructing both Proto-Mande and Proto-Niger–Congo now Sierra Leone and some... Gradually adapted to their role in preserving oral tradition the many related Mande languages divided... Judged by historians as more astute and farsighted than his predecessor Sudanese '', Black... Validity of Niger–Congo will require reconstructing both Proto-Mande and Proto-Niger–Congo, while others were less fortified washing and daily of. ), Eastern Mande ( Mende, Kpelle, Loma etc. ) the empire of Mali was by... Mamadou Diabate, and the Americas: north-west, south and East in identifying the also!
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